Vitamin B7 (biotin)

Vitamin B7, also known as biotin or vitamin H, is a water-soluble vitamin classified as a B-complex vitamin. Biotin can only be synthesized by bacteria, molds, yeasts, algae, and by certain plant species. In humans, bacteria in the intestine can make biotin or it can be obtained from exogenous sources (food or dietary supplements).

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Vitamin B6 helps the body make several neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry signals from one nerve cell to another. It is needed for normal brain development and function, and helps the body make the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which influence mood, and melatonin, which helps regulate the body clock.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)

In addition to playing a role in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy, vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins, particularly B2 (also called riboflavin). It is sometimes called the “anti-stress” vitamin, but there is no concrete evidence whether it helps the body withstand stress.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Too little riboflavin can cause cracking and reddening of the lips, a swollen tongue, skin cracking (including cracked corners of the mouth), dermatitis, weakness, throat swelling/soreness and even iron deficiency anemia. Riboflavin/vitamin B2 deficiency can also affect vision, including blurred vision and itching, watering, sore, or bloodshot eyes, as well eyes becoming light-sensitive and easily fatigued.

Vitamin C

Historically, vitamin C was used for preventing and treating scurvy. Scurvy is now relatively rare, but it was once common among sailors, pirates, and others who spent long periods of time on-board ships. When the voyages lasted longer than the supply of fruits and vegetables, the sailors began to suffer from vitamin C deficiency, which led to scurvy.